Ockham’s Razor, also known as the parsimony principle, is a philosophical principle that suggests that, when you have several possible explanations for a phenomenon, the simplest explanation is usually the correct one.
This principle is used in various areas of knowledge, such as science, philosophy and theology. Its origin dates back to the fourteenth century, when William of Ockham, English philosopher and theologian, formulated this principle.
Ockham’s Razor states that simplicity is preferable to complexity, so an explanation involving fewer assumptions should be preferred over an explanation involving more assumptions. This is because more complex explanations are usually less likely to be true.
Origin of Ockham’s razor
The origin of Ockham’s Razor dates back to the fourteenth century, when William of Ockham formulated this philosophical principle. Ockham was an English philosopher and theologian who was noted for his critical thinking and for his search for truth through simplification.
Examples of Ockham’s Razor
Some examples of application of the principle of Ockham’s Razor:
- In biology, the theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin is an example of Ockham’s Razor. This theory explains the diversity of life on Earth from a reduced set of principles, such as natural selection and genetic variability. In contrast, intelligent design theory, which posits the existence of a divine creator, requires much more complex assumptions and is therefore less likely.
- In physics, Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation is an example of Ockham’s Razor. This law explains how objects attract each other in terms of the mass and distance between them, without requiring the intervention of mystical or supernatural forces. In contrast, the flat earth theory, which holds that the Earth is not spherical but flat, requires a significant amount of assumptions and contradicts numerous scientific observations.
- In economics, the principle of supply and demand is an example of Ockham’s Razor. This theory postulates that the price of a good or service depends on the interaction between available supply and consumer demand. From this premise, fluctuations in the prices of products and services in the market can be explained with relative simplicity. In contrast, the labor theory of value, which holds that the value of a good is determined by the amount of labor required to produce it, is more complex and has been criticized for its lack of precision and empirical rigor.